Increased Expression of Toll-Like Receptors by Monocytes and Natural Killer Cells in ANCA-Associated VasculitisTadema, H., Abdulahad, W. H., Stegeman, C. A., Kallenberg, C. G. M. & Heeringa, P., 6-Sep-2011, In : PLoS ONE. 6, 9, 10 p., 24315.
Research output: Contribution to journal › Article › Academic › peer-review
Introduction: Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a family of receptors that sense pathogen associated patterns such as bacterial cell wall proteins. Bacterial infections are associated with anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV). Here, we assessed the expression of TLRs 2, 4, and 9 by peripheral blood leukocytes from patients with AAV, and investigated TLR mediated responses ex vivo.
Methods: Expression of TLRs was determined in 38 AAV patients (32 remission, 6 active disease), and 20 healthy controls (HC). Membrane expression of TLRs 2, 4, and 9, and intracellular expression of TLR9 by B lymphocytes, T lymphocytes, NK cells, monocytes and granulocytes was assessed using 9-color flowcytometry. Whole blood from 13 patients and 7 HC was stimulated ex vivo with TLR 2, 4 and 9 ligands and production of cytokines was analyzed.
Results: In patients, we observed increased proportions of TLR expressing NK cells. Furthermore, patient monocytes expressed higher levels of TLR2 compared to HC, and in a subset of patients an increased proportion of TLR4(+) monocytes was observed. Monocytes from nasal carriers of Staphylococcus aureus expressed increased levels of intracellular TLR9. Membrane expression of TLRs by B lymphocytes, T lymphocytes, and granulocytes was comparable between AAV patients and HC. Patients with active disease did not show differential TLR expression compared to patients in remission. Ex vivo responses to TLR ligands did not differ significantly between patients and HC.
Conclusions: In AAV, monocytes and NK cells display increased TLR expression. Increased TLR expression by these leukocytes, probably resulting from increased activation, could play a role in disease (re) activation.
|Number of pages||10|
|Publication status||Published - 6-Sep-2011|
- ANTINEUTROPHIL CYTOPLASMIC ANTIBODIES, PATTERN-RECOGNITION RECEPTORS, NAIVE B-CELLS, WEGENERS-GRANULOMATOSIS, STAPHYLOCOCCUS-AUREUS, AUTOANTIBODY PRODUCTION, MONONUCLEAR-CELLS, NASAL CARRIAGE, BACTERIAL-DNA, ACTIVATION