Human energy and time spent by women using cooking energy systems: A case study of Nepal

Das, K., Pradhan, G. & Nonhebel, S., 1-Sep-2019, In : Energy. 182, p. 493-501 9 p.

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In most developing countries, many rural households use fuelwood and a traditional cookstove (TCS). Women are the backbone of the cooking system, as they mostly manage it. Despite several existing efficient cooking energy systems, households generally do not prefer them. Thus, our aim is to find why this is the case. We estimate the time required and human energy expenditure (HEE) for production of cooking fuel for four alternative cooking energy systems in Nepal, as a case study. The time required to produce cooking fuel for the baseline scenario (i.e. fuelwood and TCS) is 40 h/cap/yr and HEE is 41 ME cap/yr. System 2 (charcoal and TCS) has the highest demand for time and HEE. The results suggest that the most efficient system is System 1 (i.e. fuelwood and an improved cookstove (ICS)). However, a woman produces cooking fuel for the whole household, which multiples her time and HEE demand to the household size. This system analysis indicates a significant influence in the selection of cooking fuel due to the HEE and time demand. It concludes that in the future, more importance should be attached to the labour required from women in the cooking energy systems in the development of technological improvements. (C) 2019 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)493-501
Number of pages9
Early online date11-Jun-2019
Publication statusPublished - 1-Sep-2019


  • Cookstove, Human energy, Briquettes, Charcoal, Fuelwood, RENEWABLE ENERGY, EXPENDITURE, COSTS

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