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Gene-based interaction analysis shows GABAergic genes interacting with parenting in adolescent depressive symptoms

Van Assche, E., Moons, T., Cinar, O., Viechtbauer, W., Oldehinkel, A. J., Van Leeuwen, K., Verschueren, K., Colpin, H., Lambrechts, D., Van den Noortgate, W., Goossens, L., Claes, S. & van Winkel, R., Dec-2017, In : Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. 58, 12, p. 1301-1309 9 p.

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  • Gene-based interaction analysis shows GABAergic genes interacting with parenting in adolescent depressive symptoms

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  • Evelien Van Assche
  • Tim Moons
  • Ozan Cinar
  • Wolfgang Viechtbauer
  • Albertine J. Oldehinkel
  • Karla Van Leeuwen
  • Karine Verschueren
  • Hilde Colpin
  • Diether Lambrechts
  • Wim Van den Noortgate
  • Luc Goossens
  • Stephan Claes
  • Ruud van Winkel

BACKGROUND: Most gene-environment interaction studies (G × E) have focused on single candidate genes. This approach is criticized for its expectations of large effect sizes and occurrence of spurious results. We describe an approach that accounts for the polygenic nature of most psychiatric phenotypes and reduces the risk of false-positive findings. We apply this method focusing on the role of perceived parental support, psychological control, and harsh punishment in depressive symptoms in adolescence.

METHODS: Analyses were conducted on 982 adolescents of Caucasian origin (Mage (SD) = 13.78 (.94) years) genotyped for 4,947 SNPs in 263 genes, selected based on a literature survey. The Leuven Adolescent Perceived Parenting Scale (LAPPS) and the Parental Behavior Scale (PBS) were used to assess perceived parental psychological control, harsh punishment, and support. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) was the outcome. We used gene-based testing taking into account linkage disequilibrium to identify genes containing SNPs exhibiting an interaction with environmental factors yielding a p-value per single gene. Significant results at the corrected p-value of p < 1.90 × 10(-4) were examined in an independent replication sample of Dutch adolescents (N = 1354).

RESULTS: Two genes showed evidence for interaction with perceived support: GABRR1 (p = 4.62 × 10(-5) ) and GABRR2 (p = 9.05 × 10(-6) ). No genes interacted significantly with psychological control or harsh punishment. Gene-based analysis was unable to confirm the interaction of GABRR1 or GABRR2 with support in the replication sample. However, for GABRR2, but not GABRR1, the correlation of the estimates between the two datasets was significant (r (46) = .32; p = .027) and a gene-based analysis of the combined datasets supported GABRR2 × support interaction (p = 1.63 × 10(-4) ).

CONCLUSIONS: We present a gene-based method for gene-environment interactions in a polygenic context and show that genes interact differently with particular aspects of parenting. This accentuates the importance of polygenic approaches and the need to accurately assess environmental exposure in G × E.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1301-1309
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry
Volume58
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - Dec-2017

    Keywords

  • Gene-environment interaction, polygenic, parenting, gene-based testing, adolescents, depression, GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION, MAJOR DEPRESSION, ENVIRONMENT INTERACTIONS, SEROTONIN TRANSPORTER, MISSING HERITABILITY, CHILDHOOD DEPRESSION, RECEPTORS, CHILDREN, RISK, LOCI

ID: 46919420