Gender differences in associations of depressive symptoms and anxiety with inflammatory markers in patients with non-obstructive coronary artery diseaseMommersteeg, P. M. C., Naude, P. J. W., Bagijn, W., Widdershoven, J., Westerhuis, B. W. J. J. M. & Schoemaker, R. G., Oct-2019, In : Journal of Psychosomatic Research. 125, 9 p., 109779.
Research output: Contribution to journal › Article › Academic › peer-review
Objective: The aim of this study was to examine gender differences of the associations between depressive symptoms and anxiety with inflammatory markers in patients with non-obstructive coronary artery disease (NOCAD).
Methods: Depressive symptoms and anxiety (Beck Depression Inventory BDI and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale HADS) were examined in 524 patients with NOCAD (52% women, mean age 64 +/- 9 years) as part of the TweeSteden Mild Stenosis (TWIST) observational cohort study. Blood samples were analyzed for neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) levels, high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP), and leukocyte differentiation. Multivariate analysis for the inflammatory markers with main effects of depressive symptoms or anxiety, gender, and their interactions were observed.
Results: Women had elevated levels of hsCRP, and a lower monocyte and eosinophil count than men, with small to medium effect sizes (range eta(2)((p)) = 0.019-0.047). After Holm-Bonferroni correction depressive symptoms according to the BDI were associated with an overall elevated hsCRP level explaining 2.4% of the hsCRP variance. A significant positive association between BDI cognitive symptoms with elevated hsCRP level was observed in men (R-2 = 0.045), but not in women (R-2 <0.001). Adjustment for age, body mass index, smoking, and physical activity attenuated this finding.
Conclusion: Small associations of inflammatory markers with depressive symptoms and anxiety were confounded by lifestyle factors, predominantly smoking. The interacting roles of gender, smoking, and psychological factors on inflammatory markers may point toward different behavioral and inflammatory pathways for women and men with NOCAD, which remains to be further explored.
|Number of pages||9|
|Journal||Journal of Psychosomatic Research|
|Publication status||Published - Oct-2019|
- Non-obstructive coronary artery disease, Ischemic heart disease, Depressive symptoms, Anxiety, Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, C-reactive protein, Leukocyte differentiation, Lymphocyte, Monocyte, Eosinophil, GELATINASE-ASSOCIATED LIPOCALIN, C-REACTIVE PROTEIN, TWEESTEDEN MILD STENOSIS, HEART-DISEASE, CARDIOVASCULAR MORTALITY, MYOCARDIAL-INFARCTION, MAJOR DEPRESSION, CHEST-PAIN, RISK, PREVALENCE