Fissurectomy combined with botulinum toxin A: a review of short- and long-term efficacy of this treatment strategy for chronic anal fissure; a consecutive proposal of a treatment algorithm for chronic anal fissure

Trzpis, M., Klaase, J. M., Koop, R. H. & Broens, P. M. A., 2-Oct-2020, In : Coloproctology. 42, 5, p. 400-408 9 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articleAcademicpeer-review

Background Several studies have investigated the short- and long-term efficacy of fissurectomy combined with botulinum toxin A injection for patients with chronic anal fissure. Objective To evaluate the short- and long-term efficacy of the combined treatment strategy of fissurectomy with botulinum toxin A for chronic anal fissure and to discuss recurrence rates in the light of current theory on the aetiology of anal fissure. Materials and methods This is a narrative review. We conducted an article search using PubMed and calculated the means of the reported efficacy ranges. Results Fissurectomy combined with botulinum toxin A injections freed at least 78% of the patients from symptoms and yielded a fissure healing rate of up to 86%. Within 12 months after treatment a 3% recurrence rate was reported. On average, the long-term recurrence rate was 22%. One study reported a 50% recurrence rate 22 months after treatment. Conclusion The efficacy of fissurectomy combined with botulinum toxin A injection for chronic anal fissure is high. The short-term recurrence rate is low, while long-term recurrence is relatively high. Extended follow-up indicates that recurrence of chronic anal fissure is possibly caused by anal basal pressure building up steadily once again. If so, the cause of renewed increase of pressure should be addressed. Based on the literature and on our clinical experience, we assume that the underlying cause of increasing anal basal pressure is that patients use their pelvic floor muscles inadequately and this in turn leads to chronic anal fissure.

Original languageGerman
Pages (from-to)400-408
Number of pages9
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 2-Oct-2020


  • Chronic anal fissure, Botulinum toxin A, Fissurectomy, Recurrence, GLYCERYL TRINITRATE, INJECTION, OINTMENT

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