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Factors affecting the chemical efficacy of 2% sodium hypochlorite against oral steady-state dual-species biofilms: Exposure time and volume application

Petridis, X., Busanello, F. H., So, M. V. R., Dijkstra, R. J. B., Sharma, P. K. & van der Sluis, L. W. M., Aug-2019, In : International Endodontic Journal. 52, 8, p. 1182-1195 14 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Aim To study the influence of time and volume of 2% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) on biofilm removal and to investigate the changes induced on the biofilm architecture. Steady-state, dual-species biofilms of standardized thickness and a realistic contact surface area between biofilms and NaOCl were used. Methodology Streptococcus oralis J22 and Actinomyces naeslundii T14V-J1 biofilms were grown on saliva-coated hydroxyapatite discs within sample holders in the Constant Depth Film Fermenter (CDFF) for 96 h. Two per cent NaOCl was statically applied for three different time intervals (60, 120 and 300 s) and in two different volumes (20 and 40 mu L) over the biofilm samples. The diffusion-driven effects of time and volume on biofilm disruption and dissolution were assessed with Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT). Structural changes of the biofilms treated with 2% NaOCl were studied with Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (CLSM) and Low Load Compression Testing (LLCT). A two-way analysis of variance (2-way anova) was performed, enabling the effect of each independent variable as well as their interaction on the outcome measures. Results Optical coherence tomography revealed that by increasing the exposure time and volume of 2% NaOCl, both biofilm disruption and dissolution significantly increased. Analysis of the interaction between the two independent variables revealed that by increasing the volume of 2% NaOCl, significant biofilm dissolution could be achieved in less time. Examination of the architecture of the remaining biofilms corroborated the EPS-lytic action of 2% NaOCl, especially when greater volumes were applied. The viscoelastic analysis of the 2% NaOCl-treated biofilms revealed that the preceding application of higher volumes could impact their subsequent removal. Conclusions Time and volume of 2% NaOCl application should be taken into account for maximizing the anti-biofilm efficiency of the irrigant and devising targeted disinfecting regimes against remaining biofilms.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1182-1195
Number of pages14
JournalInternational Endodontic Journal
Volume52
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - Aug-2019

    Keywords

  • 2% NaOCl, Biofilm, optical coherence tomography, removal, time, volume, ENDODONTIC DISINFECTING SOLUTIONS, ENTEROCOCCUS-FAECALIS BIOFILMS, CLINICAL-IMPLICATIONS, DISSOLUTION CAPACITY, APICAL PERIODONTITIS, BOVINE DENTIN, SOFT-TISSUE, CHLORHEXIDINE, RESISTANCE, VISCOELASTICITY

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