Publication

Disappearance of Icelandic walruses coincided with Norse settlement

Keighley, X., Pálsson, S., Einarsson, B., Petersen, A., Fernández-Coll, M., Jordan, P., Olsen, M. T. & Malmquist, H., Dec-2019, In : Molecular Biology and Evolution. 36, 12, p. 2656-2667 12 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

APA

Keighley, X., Pálsson, S., Einarsson, B., Petersen, A., Fernández-Coll, M., Jordan, P., ... Malmquist, H. (2019). Disappearance of Icelandic walruses coincided with Norse settlement. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 36(12), 2656-2667. https://doi.org/10.1093/molbev/msz196

Author

Keighley, Xenia ; Pálsson, Snæbjörn ; Einarsson, Bjarni ; Petersen, Aevar ; Fernández-Coll, Meritxell ; Jordan, Peter ; Olsen, Morten Tange ; Malmquist, Hilmar . / Disappearance of Icelandic walruses coincided with Norse settlement. In: Molecular Biology and Evolution. 2019 ; Vol. 36, No. 12. pp. 2656-2667.

Harvard

Keighley, X, Pálsson, S, Einarsson, B, Petersen, A, Fernández-Coll, M, Jordan, P, Olsen, MT & Malmquist, H 2019, 'Disappearance of Icelandic walruses coincided with Norse settlement', Molecular Biology and Evolution, vol. 36, no. 12, pp. 2656-2667. https://doi.org/10.1093/molbev/msz196

Standard

Disappearance of Icelandic walruses coincided with Norse settlement. / Keighley, Xenia ; Pálsson, Snæbjörn; Einarsson, Bjarni; Petersen, Aevar ; Fernández-Coll, Meritxell ; Jordan, Peter; Olsen, Morten Tange ; Malmquist, Hilmar .

In: Molecular Biology and Evolution, Vol. 36, No. 12, 12.2019, p. 2656-2667.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Vancouver

Keighley X, Pálsson S, Einarsson B, Petersen A, Fernández-Coll M, Jordan P et al. Disappearance of Icelandic walruses coincided with Norse settlement. Molecular Biology and Evolution. 2019 Dec;36(12):2656-2667. https://doi.org/10.1093/molbev/msz196


BibTeX

@article{c4df1d8dcf0345058ea9c04f8b733b86,
title = "Disappearance of Icelandic walruses coincided with Norse settlement",
abstract = "There is a growing body of evidence demonstrating the impacts of human arrival in new {"}pristine{"} environments, including terrestrial habitat alterations and species extinctions. However, the effects of marine resource utilization prior to industrialized whaling, sealing, and fishing have largely remained understudied. The expansion of the Norse across the North Atlantic offers a rare opportunity to study the effects of human arrival and early exploitation of marine resources. Today, there is no local population of walruses on Iceland, however, skeletal remains, place names, and written sources suggest that walruses existed, and were hunted by the Norse during the Settlement and Commonwealth periods (870-1262 AD). This study investigates the timing, geographic distribution, and genetic identity of walruses in Iceland by combining historical information, place names, radiocarbon dating, and genomic analyses. The results support a genetically distinct, local population of walruses that went extinct shortly after Norse settlement. The high value of walrus products such as ivory on international markets likely led to intense hunting pressure, which-potentially exacerbated by a warming climate and volcanism-resulted in the extinction of walrus on Iceland. We show that commercial hunting, economic incentives, and trade networks as early as the Viking Age were of sufficient scale and intensity to result in significant, irreversible ecological impacts on the marine environment. This is to one of the earliest examples of local extinction of a marine species following human arrival, during the very beginning of commercial marine exploitation.",
keywords = "ODOBENUS-ROSMARUS-ROSMARUS, ANCIENT DNA, HISTORICAL ECOLOGY, ATLANTIC WALRUS, MARINE MAMMALS, CLIMATE-CHANGE, HUMAN IMPACTS, TRADE, COLONIZATION, CONSERVATION",
author = "Xenia Keighley and Sn{\ae}bj{\"o}rn P{\'a}lsson and Bjarni Einarsson and Aevar Petersen and Meritxell Fern{\'a}ndez-Coll and Peter Jordan and Olsen, {Morten Tange} and Hilmar Malmquist",
year = "2019",
month = "12",
doi = "10.1093/molbev/msz196",
language = "English",
volume = "36",
pages = "2656--2667",
journal = "Molecular Biology and Evolution",
issn = "0737-4038",
publisher = "Oxford University Press",
number = "12",

}

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - Disappearance of Icelandic walruses coincided with Norse settlement

AU - Keighley, Xenia

AU - Pálsson, Snæbjörn

AU - Einarsson, Bjarni

AU - Petersen, Aevar

AU - Fernández-Coll, Meritxell

AU - Jordan, Peter

AU - Olsen, Morten Tange

AU - Malmquist, Hilmar

PY - 2019/12

Y1 - 2019/12

N2 - There is a growing body of evidence demonstrating the impacts of human arrival in new "pristine" environments, including terrestrial habitat alterations and species extinctions. However, the effects of marine resource utilization prior to industrialized whaling, sealing, and fishing have largely remained understudied. The expansion of the Norse across the North Atlantic offers a rare opportunity to study the effects of human arrival and early exploitation of marine resources. Today, there is no local population of walruses on Iceland, however, skeletal remains, place names, and written sources suggest that walruses existed, and were hunted by the Norse during the Settlement and Commonwealth periods (870-1262 AD). This study investigates the timing, geographic distribution, and genetic identity of walruses in Iceland by combining historical information, place names, radiocarbon dating, and genomic analyses. The results support a genetically distinct, local population of walruses that went extinct shortly after Norse settlement. The high value of walrus products such as ivory on international markets likely led to intense hunting pressure, which-potentially exacerbated by a warming climate and volcanism-resulted in the extinction of walrus on Iceland. We show that commercial hunting, economic incentives, and trade networks as early as the Viking Age were of sufficient scale and intensity to result in significant, irreversible ecological impacts on the marine environment. This is to one of the earliest examples of local extinction of a marine species following human arrival, during the very beginning of commercial marine exploitation.

AB - There is a growing body of evidence demonstrating the impacts of human arrival in new "pristine" environments, including terrestrial habitat alterations and species extinctions. However, the effects of marine resource utilization prior to industrialized whaling, sealing, and fishing have largely remained understudied. The expansion of the Norse across the North Atlantic offers a rare opportunity to study the effects of human arrival and early exploitation of marine resources. Today, there is no local population of walruses on Iceland, however, skeletal remains, place names, and written sources suggest that walruses existed, and were hunted by the Norse during the Settlement and Commonwealth periods (870-1262 AD). This study investigates the timing, geographic distribution, and genetic identity of walruses in Iceland by combining historical information, place names, radiocarbon dating, and genomic analyses. The results support a genetically distinct, local population of walruses that went extinct shortly after Norse settlement. The high value of walrus products such as ivory on international markets likely led to intense hunting pressure, which-potentially exacerbated by a warming climate and volcanism-resulted in the extinction of walrus on Iceland. We show that commercial hunting, economic incentives, and trade networks as early as the Viking Age were of sufficient scale and intensity to result in significant, irreversible ecological impacts on the marine environment. This is to one of the earliest examples of local extinction of a marine species following human arrival, during the very beginning of commercial marine exploitation.

KW - ODOBENUS-ROSMARUS-ROSMARUS

KW - ANCIENT DNA

KW - HISTORICAL ECOLOGY

KW - ATLANTIC WALRUS

KW - MARINE MAMMALS

KW - CLIMATE-CHANGE

KW - HUMAN IMPACTS

KW - TRADE

KW - COLONIZATION

KW - CONSERVATION

U2 - 10.1093/molbev/msz196

DO - 10.1093/molbev/msz196

M3 - Article

VL - 36

SP - 2656

EP - 2667

JO - Molecular Biology and Evolution

JF - Molecular Biology and Evolution

SN - 0737-4038

IS - 12

ER -

ID: 91364085