Complex posttraumatic stress disorder in patients exposed to emotional neglect and traumatic events: Latent class analysis

Eidhof, M. B., Djelantik, M. J., Klaassens, E. R., Kanto, V., Rittmansberger, D., Sleijpen, M., Steenbakkers, A., Weindl, D. & ter Heide, F. J. J., Feb-2019, In : Journal of traumatic stress. 32, 1, p. 23-31 9 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Copy link to clipboard


  • Complex Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Patients Exposed to Emotional Neglect

    Final publisher's version, 174 KB, PDF document

    Request copy


  • Marloes B. Eidhof
  • Manik J. Djelantik
  • Ellen R. Klaassens
  • Viktoria Kanto
  • Doris Rittmansberger
  • Marieke Sleijpen
  • Anne Steenbakkers
  • Dina Weindl
  • F. Jackie June ter Heide
The inclusion of a complex posttraumatic stress disorder (CPTSD) diagnosis in the 11th revision of the International Classification of Diseases reflects growing evidence that a subgroup of individuals with PTSD also suffer from disturbances in emotion regulation, interpersonal skills, and self-concept, which together are termed “disturbances in self-organization” (DSO). Although CPTSD is assumed to result from exposure to complex traumatic events, emotional neglect may be an important contributor. This study investigated the presence of CPTSD, defined by endorsement of PTSD and DSO symptoms in a clinical postwar generation sample. The sample consisted of 218 patients who had been exposed to emotional neglect in childhood, a subgroup of whom had also been exposed to potentially traumatic events. Using items from the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire and the Brief Symptom Inventory, a latent class analysis revealed two classes: high endorsement of almost all CPTSD symptoms (n = 83; 38.1%) and low endorsement of all CPTSD symptoms (n = 135; 61.9%). Contrary to our hypothesis, no DSO-only class was found. The R3step method showed gender and number of traumatic events to be significant predictors of class membership. Compared to the low endorsement class, individuals in the CPTSD class were more likely to be female, p = .013, and to report a higher number of traumatic experiences, p < .001. The potential intermediary role of emotional neglect in the development of DSO and CPTSD is discussed.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)23-31
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of traumatic stress
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Feb-2019



ID: 79772134