Publication

Cognitive correlates of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents with high intellectual ability

Cadenas, M., Hartman, C., Faraone, S., Antshel, K., Borges, Á., Hoogeveen, L. & Rommelse, N., 10-Feb-2020, In : Journal of neurodevelopmental disorders. 12, 1, 9 p., 6.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

  • María Cadenas
  • Catharina Hartman
  • Stephen Faraone
  • Kevin Antshel
  • África Borges
  • Lianne Hoogeveen
  • Nanda Rommelse

Background There is an ongoing debate as to whether attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in highly intelligent individuals has a similar presentation as in average intelligent individuals. The aim of this study was to examine the cognitive correlates of ADHD in highly intelligent children and adolescents with ADHD. Method Two independent samples (N = 204 and N = 84) of (1) high intelligence quotient (IQ) (IQ >= 120) children and adolescents with ADHD were used, carefully matched on age, gender, ADHD severity, and IQ with (2) control participants with high intelligence, (3) participants with ADHD with an average intelligence (IQ 90-110), and (4) control participants with an average intelligence. These samples were selected from the Dutch node of the International Multicenter ADHD Genetics (NeuroIMAGE) and Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS) cohorts, respectively, in which a large battery of cognitive tasks was administered. Linear mixed models were used to examine the main effects of ADHD and IQ and their interaction on cognitive performance. Results ADHD-control group differences were not moderated by IQ; mostly equally large ADHD-control differences in cognitive performance were found for high versus average intelligent groups. The small moderating effects found mostly indicated somewhat milder cognitive problems in highly intelligent individuals with ADHD. Overall, highly intelligent children and adolescents with ADHD performed at the level of the average intelligent control children. Conclusions Our findings indicate the cognitive profile of ADHD is similar in highly versus average intelligent individuals with ADHD, although ADHD-related cognitive deficits may be easily overlooked in the high intelligence population when compared to the typical (i.e., average intelligent) control group.

Original languageEnglish
Article number6
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of neurodevelopmental disorders
Volume12
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 10-Feb-2020

    Keywords

  • ADHD, High intelligence, Giftedness, Twice exceptional, Cognition, HIGH-IQ, DEFICIT/HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER, VALID DIAGNOSIS, RELIABILITY, GIFTEDNESS, ADULTS, HETEROGENEITY, INTELLIGENCE, PREDICTORS

ID: 118078983