Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase (CaMK) signaling via CaMKI and AMP-activated protein kinase contributes to the regulation of WIPI-1 at the onset of autophagyPfisterer, S. G., Mauthe, M., Codogno, P. & Proikas-Cezanne, T., Dec-2011, In : Molecular Pharmacology. 80, 6, p. 1066-1075 10 p.
Research output: Contribution to journal › Article › Academic › peer-review
Autophagy is initiated by multimembrane vesicle (autophagosome) formation upon mammalian target of rapamycin inhibition and phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate [PtdIns(3)P] generation. Upstream of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3), WD-repeat proteins interacting with phosphoinositides (WIPI proteins) specifically bind PtdIns(3)P at forming autophagosomal membranes and become membrane-bound proteins of generated autophagosomes. Here, we applied automated high-throughput WIPI-1 puncta analysis, paralleled with LC3 lipidation assays, to investigate Ca(2+)-mediated autophagy modulation. We imposed cellular stress by starvation or administration of etoposide (0.5-50 μM), sorafenib (1-40 μM), staurosporine (20-500 nM), or thapsigargin (20-500 nM) (1, 2, or 3 h) and measured the formation of WIPI-1 positive autophagosomal membranes. Automated analysis of up to 5000 individual cells/treatment demonstrated that Ca(2+) chelation by BAPTA-AM (10 and 30 μM) counteracted starvation or pharmacological compound-induced WIPI-1 puncta formation and LC3 lipidation. Application of selective Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent kinase kinase (CaMKK) α/β and calmodulin-dependent kinase (CaMK) I/II/IV inhibitors 7-oxo-7H-benzimidazo[2,1-a]benz[de]isoquinoline-3-carboxylic acid acetate (STO-609; 10-30 μg/ml) and 2-(N-[2-hydroxyethyl])-N-(4-methoxybenzenesulfonyl)amino-N-(4-chlorocinnamyl)-N-methylamine (KN-93; 1-10 μM), respectively, significantly reduced starvation-induced autophagosomal membrane formation, suggesting that Ca(2+) mobilization upon autophagy induction involves CaMKI/IV. By small interefering RNA (siRNA)-mediated down-regulation of CaMKI or CaMKIV, we demonstrate that CaMKI contributes to stimulation of WIPI-1. In line, WIPI-1 positive autophagosomal membranes were formed in AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) α(1)/α(2)-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts upon nutrient starvation, whereas basal autophagy was prominently reduced. However, transient down-regulation of AMPK by siRNA resulted in an increased basal level of both WIPI-1 puncta and LC3 lipidation, and nutrient-starvation induced autophagy was sensitive to STO-609/KN-93. Our data provide evidence that pharmacological compound-modulated and starvation-induced autophagy involves Ca(2+)-dependent signaling, including CaMKI independent of AMPKα(1)/α(2). Our data also suggest that AMPKα(1)/α(2) might differentially contribute to the regulation of WIPI-1 at the onset of autophagy.
|Number of pages||10|
|Publication status||Published - Dec-2011|
- AMP-Activated Protein Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors, Animals, Autophagy/physiology, Autophagy-Related Proteins, Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 1/antagonists & inhibitors, Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors, Carrier Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors, Cell Line, Tumor, Cells, Cultured, Chelating Agents/pharmacology, Enzyme Inhibitors/metabolism, Humans, Membrane Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors, Mice, Signal Transduction/drug effects