Assessment of Cotinine Reveals a Dose-Dependent Effect of Smoking Exposure on Long-term Outcomes After Renal TransplantationHellemons, M. E., Sanders, J-S. F., Seelen, M. A. J., Gans, R. O. B., Muller Kobold, A., van Son, W. J., Postmus, D., Navis, G. J. & Bakker, S. J. L., Sep-2015, In : Transplantation. 99, 9, p. 1926-1932 7 p.
Research output: Contribution to journal › Article › Academic › peer-review
BACKGROUND: Smoking is a risk factor for poor late outcomes in renal transplant recipients (RTR). Smoking exposure can be assessed by self-report and cotinine measurements. We investigated whether use of cotinine as a biomarker for smoking exposure can serve as an alternative for self-report and to compare associations of smoking exposure by self-report and cotinine with outcomes in RTR and assess dose dependency.
METHODS: Renal transplant recipients were classified as never, former, light (≤10 cigarettes/day), and heavy smokers (>10 cigarettes/day) according to self-report and analogous categories for urine and plasma cotinine. First, we assessed agreement of self-reported smoking exposure with smoking exposure according urine and plasma cotinine. Second, we compared the associations with graft failure and mortality.
RESULTS: Of 603 RTR (age 51.5 ± 12.1 years, 55% men), 36.0% RTR were never, 42.3% former, 10.6% light, and 11.1% heavy smokers according to self-report. The majority (98.6%) of never smokers had nondetectable cotinine. However, 14 and 13 RTR reporting no active smoking had respective urine or plasma cotinine consistent with active smoking. Cotinine-based measurements were dose-dependently associated with mortality and graft failure.
CONCLUSIONS: Plasma and urine cotinine can serve as an alternative to self-report and were dose-dependently associated with poor late outcomes in RTR.
|Number of pages||7|
|Publication status||Published - Sep-2015|
- CIGARETTE-SMOKING, CURRENT SMOKERS, RECIPIENTS, NONSMOKERS, PROTEIN, RISK