Assessing brand image through communalities and asymmetries in brand-to-attribute and attribute-to-brand associations

Torres, A. & Bijmolt, T. H. A., 1-Jun-2009, In : European Journal of Operational Research. 195, 2, p. 628-640 13 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Brand image is a key component of customer-based brand equity, and refers to the associations a consumer holds in memory. Such associations are often directional; one should distinguish between brand-to-attribute and attribute-to-brand associations, Information on these associations arise from two ways of collecting data, respectively: brand-by-brand evaluations of all attributes and attribute-by-attributes evaluations of all brands. In this paper, the authors present a methodological approach, namely correspondence analysis of matched matrices, to assess the communalities as well as asymmetries between brand-to-attribute and attribute-to-brand associations. This allows studying whether or not there is match in a brand's positioning (brand-to-attribute associations) and relative advantage (attribute-to-brand associations). The methodology results in perceptual maps visualizing brand image. The approach is illustrated in an empirical market research project in which two samples of consumers evaluated ten brands of deodorants and eleven attributes. The stability of the solution is examined using bootstrap resampling procedures. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)628-640
Number of pages13
JournalEuropean Journal of Operational Research
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1-Jun-2009


  • Marketing, Brand image, Brand-to-attribute and attribute-to-brand associations, Multivariate statistics, Perceptual mapping, Correspondence analysis, Bootstrap, DOMINANCE, CONTEXT, RECALL, MEMORY, EQUITY, MODEL

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