Accelerating the Development of Second-Order False Belief Reasoning: A Training Study With Different Feedback MethodsArslan, B., Verbrugge, R., Taatgen, N. & Hollebrandse, B., Jan-2020, In : Child Development. 91, 1, p. 249-270 22 p.
Research output: Contribution to journal › Article › Academic › peer-review
One-hundred-six 5-year-olds' (Mage = 5;6; SD = 0.40) were trained with second-order false belief tasks in one of the following conditions: (a) feedback with explanation; (b) feedback without explanation; (c) no feedback; (d) active control. The results showed that there were significant improvements in children's scores from pretest to posttest in the three experimental conditions even when children's age, verbal abilities, or working memory scores were controlled for. The training effect was stable at a follow-up session 4 months after the pretest. Overall, our results suggest that 5-year-olds' failures in second-order false belief tasks are due to lack of experience and that they can be helped over the threshold by exposure to many stories involving second-order false belief reasoning, including why questions.
|Number of pages||22|
|Early online date||26-Nov-2018|
|Publication status||Published - Jan-2020|
- article, child, female, follow up, human, human experiment, male, pretest posttest design, reasoning, working memory, THEORY-OF-MIND, MENTAL STATES, EXECUTIVE CONTROL, MIDDLE CHILDHOOD, CHILDRENS THEORY, LANGUAGE, REPRESENTATION, METAANALYSIS, TRANSITION