A new minimal-stress freely-moving rat model for preclinical studies on intranasal administration of CNS drugs

Stevens, J., Suidgeest, E., van der Graaf, P. H., Danhof, M. & de Lange, E. C. M., Aug-2009, In : Pharmaceutical Research. 26, 8, p. 1911-1917 7 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

  • Jasper Stevens
  • Ernst Suidgeest
  • Piet Hein van der Graaf
  • Meindert Danhof
  • Elizabeth C. M. de Lange

PURPOSE: To develop a new minimal-stress model for intranasal administration in freely moving rats and to evaluate in this model the brain distribution of acetaminophen following intranasal versus intravenous administration.

METHODS: Male Wistar rats received one intranasal cannula, an intra-cerebral microdialysis probe, and two blood cannulas for drug administration and serial blood sampling respectively. To evaluate this novel model, the following experiments were conducted. 1) Evans Blue was administered to verify the selectivity of intranasal exposure. 2) During a 1 min infusion 10, 20, or 40 microl saline was administered intranasally or 250 microl intravenously. Corticosterone plasma concentrations over time were compared as biomarkers for stress. 3) 200 microg of the model drug acetaminophen was given in identical setup and plasma, and brain pharmacokinetics were determined.

RESULTS: In 96% of the rats, only the targeted nasal cavity was deeply colored. Corticosterone plasma concentrations were not influenced, neither by route nor volume of administration. Pharmacokinetics of acetaminophen were identical after intravenous and intranasal administration, although the Cmax in microdialysates was reached a little earlier following intravenous administration.

CONCLUSION: A new minimal-stress model for intranasal administration in freely moving rats has been successfully developed and allows direct comparison with intravenous administration.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1911-1917
Number of pages7
JournalPharmaceutical Research
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - Aug-2009
Externally publishedYes


  • Administration, Intranasal, Animals, Biomarkers, Central Nervous System, Corticosterone, Male, Models, Animal, Radioimmunoassay, Rats, Rats, Wistar, Stress, Physiological, Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

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