A generalization of GIPSCAL for the analysis of nonsymmetric data

Kiers, H. A. L. & Takane, Y., 1994, In : Journal of Classification. 11, 1, p. 79-99 21 p.

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Graphical representation of nonsymmetric relationships data has usually proceeded via separate displays for the symmetric and the skew-symmetric parts of a data matrix. DEDICOM avoids splitting the data into symmetric and skew-symmetric parts, but lacks a graphical representation of the results. Chino's GIPSCAL combines features of both models, but may have a poor goodness-of-fit compared to DEDICOM. We simplify and generalize Chino's method in such a way that it fits the data better. We develop an alternating least squares algorithm for the resulting method, called Generalized GIPSCAL, and adjust it to handle GIPSCAL as well. In addition, we show that Generalized GIPSCAL is a constrained variant of DEDICOM and derive necessary and sufficient conditions for equivalence of the two models. Because these conditions are rather mild, we expect that in many practical cases DEDICOM and Generalized GIPSCAL are (nearly) equivalent, and hence that the graphical representation from Generalized GIPSCAL can be used to display the DEDICOM results graphically. Such a representation is given for an illustration. Finally, we show Generalized GIPSCAL to be a generalization of another method for joint representation of the symmetric and skew-symmetric parts of a data matrix.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)79-99
Number of pages21
JournalJournal of Classification
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1994



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