Molecules: Structure, Reactivity, and Function

Faculteit Science and Engineering
Jaar 2022/23
Vakcode WBCH004-05
Vaknaam Molecules: Structure, Reactivity, and Function
Niveau(s) propedeuse
Voertaal Engels
Periode semester I a
ECTS 5
Rooster rooster.rug.nl

Uitgebreide vaknaam Molecules: Structure, Reactivity, and Function
Leerdoelen At the end of the course, the student is able to:
1.
describe electronic 'aufbau' of atoms and how (hybrid) atomic and molecular orbitals relate to the formation of molecules at a qualitative level.
2.

draw the (resonance) structures of molecules and evaluate differences in properties, such as acidity, nucleophilicity, polarity or stability, on the basis of these structures.
3.
draw constitutional and stereoisomers of molecules and assign stereodescriptors to structures.

4.
explain the general reactivity of molecules with a particular focus on two standard substitution and elimination reactions.
5.
be able to draw the mechanism of simple substitution and elimination reactions and to steer the outcome of reactions by adjusting the reagents and reaction conditions.
6.
describe the structure and properties (e.g aromaticity) and reactivity of pi-conjugated molecules using molecular orbitals and how they relate to the absorption and emission of light by molecules.
7.
explain the basics of energy transfer and electrical conduction in and between molecules and apply these concepts when describing quenching or resonance phenomena as well as their relevance for devices such as OLEDs and organic solar cells.
8.
work in an academic chemical laboratory according to the rules and habits, with a focus on: planning, performing and reporting about an experiment, keeping a notebook, and handling waste properly.
Omschrijving This module is divided into three parts:

Part 1. Molecular structure. Discussion from the perspective of organic bonds. Important aspects: Valence bond theory, molecular orbital theory, VSEPR, resonance structures, atomic orbitals, hybridization, molecular orbitals, Lewis structures, and stereochemistry.

Part 2. Molecular reactivity. Guided by the structure of molecules this part will discuss the properties and resulting reactivities of molecules. The first two lectures will demonstrate how properties of molecules determine their general reactivity and how they react in acid-base reactions. Based on SN1 and SN2 reactions, essential concepts such as reaction mechanism, transition state, intermediates, solvation, reactivity, and steric hindrance will be discussed. Furthermore, lectures will demonstrate how to apply this knowledge to affect the course of a reaction.

Part 3. Molecular functionality. This part will focus on how the reactivity and opto-electronic properties of molecules enable molecular functionality. Molecules featuring delocalized systems will be discussed and how conjugation influences the ability of molecules to absorb light. In a second part, lectures will discuss the fate of excited states and how steering energy transfer events enables applications.
Uren per week
Onderwijsvorm Hoorcollege (LC), Practisch werk (PRC), Werkcollege (T)
(Total hours of lectures: 28 hours, Tutorials: 26 hours, Self study: 54 hours, practical 32)
Toetsvorm Opdracht (AST), Practisch werk (PR), Schriftelijk tentamen (WE), Tussentoets (IT)
(See remarks.)
Vaksoort propedeuse
Coördinator prof. dr. E. Otten
Docent(en) C. Mayer, PhD. ,prof. dr. E. Otten
Verplichte literatuur
Titel Auteur ISBN Prijs
Organic Chemistry, structure and function (2018). (Chapters 1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 14, 15) Vollhardt & Schore 978-1-319-18771-2
The reader document belonging to the course will be provided as pdf file through the Nestor site of the course.
Physical Chemistry, Quanta, Matter, and Change (2014). (Topics 31, 46.1, and 93)
Atkins, de Paula, Friedman 978-0-19-960981-9
Entreevoorwaarden The course unit assumes prior knowledge acquired from high school (similar to VWO level in The Netherlands).
Opmerkingen (a) Final grade theory part (FGT):
If FE>=5, then FGT = max(FE, 0.1*HW + 0.9*FE, 0.2*MT + 0.8*FE, 0.1*HW + 0.2*MT + 0.7*FE), with FGT as final grade theory part, FE as grade for the final exam, HW the mean grade for home work, and MT as grade for the midterm exam.
FE>=5 means that minimum 50 of the 100 points have to be obtained.
(b) the practicals have to be completed with a grade of at least 6.0

Mandatory presence parts: during the introduction session concerning the practicals, and during the scheduled lab days of both practicals. The consequence of absence without prior notice and approval is failing that practical, hence failing the course until the practical has been passed during a second chance
Opgenomen in
Opleiding Jaar Periode Type
BSc Chemical Engineering 1 semester I a verplicht
BSc Chemistry  ( Core programme) 1 semester I a verplicht