Thermodynamics
Faculteit  Science and Engineering 
Jaar  2022/23 
Vakcode  WBLT00805 
Vaknaam  Thermodynamics 
Niveau(s)  bachelor 
Voertaal  Engels 
Periode  semester II a 
ECTS  5 
Rooster  rooster.rug.nl 
Uitgebreide vaknaam  Thermodynamics  
Leerdoelen  At the end of the course, the student is able to: 1. reproduce the concepts around energy, in particular in relation to the energy of molecules: translation, rotation, and vibration, as well as chemical energy 2. reproduce the concepts around energy, in particular in relation to the energy of molecules: translation, rotation, and vibration, as well as chemical energy 3. reproduce the concepts of thermodynamics, how one can act on a system of molecules by performing work and transferring energy by heat exchange, and be able to perform thermodynamical calculations for transformations of gases, including chemical reactions, both with pen and paper and using computational tools 4. reproduce the concepts and quantification of equilibrium in molecular systems: mechanical, thermal, and chemical equilibrium 5. calculate the (Gibbs) free energy and chemical potential(s) of pure substances and simple mixtures as a function of pressure, temperature, volume, and composition, and be able to predict the position of equilibria from the (Gibbs) free energy 6. point out the assumptions made in the derivations of the equations and their limitations in relation to the nature of real molecules 

Omschrijving  Brief introduction to classical mechanics: (threedimensional) equations of motion, force and momentum, conservation of total energy and momentum. Kinetic energy and work. The relationship between a conservative force and potential energy. Energy in molecules: translation, rotation, and vibration, as well as chemical energy. The state of a molecule and the state of many molecules and the empirical relation between state variables, the equation of state. The energy of many molecules: thermal and mechanical equilibrium, Boltzmann distribution, equipartition principle, the energy equation. Introduction to thermodynamics: converting the energy of a collection of molecules into (useful) work. Learning about molecules by exchanging energy with a collection of them through heat exchange and/or work. Direction of spontaneous change: entropy. State functions energy, enthalpy, entropy, free energy. Thermodynamic calculations of common processes using the Laws of Thermodynamics. Work through expansion and compression. Energy exchange by heating or cooling. Distinction between isothermal, adiabatic, isobaric, and isochoric processes. Driving forces in molecular and biological systems: energy (enthalpy) and entropy. Gibbs and Helmholtz free energies combine energy (enthalpy) and entropy. From a knowledge of the free energy, equilibria of all kinds can be predicted, including chemical equilibria. Calculations will be made for simple models demonstrating the use of the free energy in determining these equilibria. The mathematical techniques applied in this course are: elementary algebra, numerical and analytical integration, differentiation, linear first and secondorder differential equations, elementary vector calculus. Practise is provided in tutorial exercises and optional python demonstration notebooks. 

Uren per week  
Onderwijsvorm 
Hoorcollege (LC), Werkcollege (T)
(Traditional classes) 

Toetsvorm 
Schriftelijk tentamen (WE)
(The final mark for the course unit is determined by the result on the final written exam. The pass grade is a minimum 55% score on the final written exam.) 

Vaksoort  bachelor  
Coördinator  dr. A.H. de Vries  
Docent(en)  dr. A.H. de Vries  
Verplichte literatuur 


Entreevoorwaarden  Secondary school physics, such as Newton's laws, understanding of equations, ability to perform calculations with physics quantities and units. Basic knowledge of handling chemical reaction equations. Basic algebra. Knowledge and skills acquired in the courses calculus for LST, Organic Chemistry for Life Science 1, and Biochemistry for LST (all Yr1, Block Ib), skills dealing with data sets acquired in Practical Course Optics and Cell Biology (Yr1, Block Ia).  
Opmerkingen  The material ties in in part with the course Biophysics that runs parallel in Block IIa. The course prepares for Pharmaceutical Analysis A (Yr1, IIb), Quantum Mechanics (Yr2, Ib), Spectroscopy (Yr2, IIa), and Biotechnology (Yr2, IIb).  
Opgenomen in 
