PhD ceremony: Phuong Le, 14.45 uur, Academiegebouw, Broerstraat 5, Groningen
Thesis: The development of instruments of environmental policy: can developing countries learn from developed countries?
Promotor(s): prof. A. Nentjes
Starting with the economically most developed economies from about 1970 on instruments of pollution control have been applied in national environmental policies. Developing countries followed two decades later. The first research question is whether the development can be viewed as progress from more primitive to complex instruments. The second question is whether and what developing countries can learn from the experience of developed countries. The research questions have been worked out in a case study of air pollution control in the United States and a similar case study of Vietnam.
In the U.S. direct regulation by way of performance standards remained the dominant instrument. Over the decades it has steadily been improved. The economic instrument of emission trading has been developed from the late 1970s on. Instruments have evolved, hand in hand with the development of the administrative infrastructure, from more primitive towards a more advanced (efficient) set of instruments.
introduced air pollution control through performance standards in the 1990s. In 2003 the country was still in the first primitive stage of development of administrative infrastructure and application of instruments. Economic instruments have not been applied. From the experience of the U.S. developing countries such as Vietnam can learn that implementing economic instruments, and in particular emission trading, is a complex task that can only successfully be done with an advanced administrative infrastructure in good order.
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