Skip to ContentSkip to Navigation
About usNews and EventsNews articles

Sol. The sun in the art and religions of Rome

03 September 2009

PhD ceremony: S.E. Hijmans, 13.15 uur, Academiegebouw, Broerstraat 5, Groningen

Thesis: Sol. The sun in the art and religions of Rome

Promotor(s): prof. P.A.J. Attema, prof. mw. M. Kleibrink

Faculty: Arts


In the past two decades our understanding of the Roman sun god Sol has changed

dramatically. The nineteenth century view that revering the sun ran counter to Roman religious sensibilities has been abandoned. Roman solar cult was as old as Rome, and had an unbroken presence in the city. Our literary sources for this cult are scant, but we possess an abundant array of material culture sources. These are valuable because in Rome’s visually oriented society material culture had an important communicative function. “Reading” these sources is not straightforward. Many images in Roman art, for example, have derived meanings that are not immediately apparent. In the case of Sol, we find that many depictions of him do not represent the sun or sun god, but are used to denote eternity or the Roman ideal of imperial stability.

It is impossible to offer a thorough analysis of all Sol-related imagery in one book. After a historical and methodological introduction, and a catalogue and discussion of Sol-images, Hijmans’s book therefore offers only a limited number of case studies along the lines of the methodological and theoretical framework proposed. These include reassessments of the imperial radiate crown (not a divine, solar symbol), of Horace’s Carmen Saeculare (Sol and Luna define its main theme as aeternitas), the Christ-Sol mosaic in the Vatican necropolis (not Christ, just Sol), and the influence of solar cult on the emergence of Christmas (overstated).


Last modified:15 September 2017 3.38 p.m.
printView this page in: Nederlands

More news

  • 14 October 2019

    Camp executioner Josef Kotalla gained respect through violence

    He was one of the imprisoned German war criminals known as the ‘Breda Three’: Josef Kotalla. ‘The executioner of Amersfoort’ is the only German war criminal who would die during imprisonment in the Netherlands. Forty years after his death, he is still...

  • 11 October 2019

    Down Under with Top Dutch

    After two years of hard work, the Groningen Top Dutch Solar Racing team has arrived in Australia. The team consists of students of the Hanze University of Applied Sciences, University of Groningen, and secondary vocational education (MBO) and is currently...

  • 10 October 2019

    New lectures series: Treasures from the University Library

    In the lecture series Treasures from the University Library, researchers using material from our Special Collections talk about their research, while the objects in question are also present.