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Hemelrijk, Prof. Charlotte

Charlotte Hemelrijk
Charlotte Hemelrijk

Charlotte Hemelrijk is professor of self-organization in social systems. Within the department of Behavioural ecology and self-organisation, she concentrates on primates, fish and birds. Hemelrijk studied biology and gained her PhD with a thesis on the social behaviour of chimpansees. From 1991 to 2003, she worked at the laboratory of Artificial Intelligence at the University of Zurich, where she conducted research on artificial social systems and she obtained her habilitation.

In 2003 she became a Rosalind Franklin Fellow at the University of Groningen, where she was appointed Professor of Self-organization of Social Systems in 2006. Hemelrijk and her department use computer models to examine the extent to which complex natural phenomena are created by self-organization, as a side effect of the interaction between individuals and their social and physical environment. Her fields of research include starling flocks and fish schools.


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Sankey, D. W. E., Storms, R. F., Musters, R. J., Russell, T. W., Hemelrijk, C. K., & Portugal, S. J. (2021). Absence of “selfish herd” dynamics in bird flocks under threat. Current Biology.,


Muller, K., Hemelrijk, C. K., Westerweel, J., & Tam, D. S. W. (2020). Calibration of multiple cameras for large-scale experiments using a freely moving calibration target. Experiments in Fluids, 61(1), [7].
Hemelrijk, C. K., Wubs, M., Gort, G., Botting, J., & van de Waal, E. (2020). Dynamics of intersexual dominance and adult sex-ratio in wild vervet monkeys. Frontiers in Psychology, 11, 839. [839].
van Weerden, J. F., Verbrugge, R., & Hemelrijk, C. K. (2020). Modelling non-attentional visual information transmission in groups under predation. Ecological Modelling, 431, [109073].
Gompper, G., Winkler, R. G., Speck, T., Solon, A., Nardini, C., Peruani, F., Löwen, H., Golestanian, R., Kaupp, U. B., Alvarez, L., Kiørboe, T., Lauga, E., Poon, W. C. K., DeSimone, A., Muiños-Landin, S., Fischer, A., Söker, N. A., Cichos, F., Kapral, R., ... Kale, S. (2020). The 2020 motile active matter roadmap. Journal of Physics-Condensed Matter, 32(19), [193001].


Storms, R. F., Carere, C., Zoratto, F., & Hemelrijk, C. K. (2019). Complex patterns of collective escape in starling flocks under predation. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 73(1), [10].
Hemelrijk, C. K., Costanzo, A., Hildenbrandt, H., & Carere, C. (2019). Damping of waves of agitation in starling flocks. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 73(9), [125].
Mills, R., Taylor, G. K., & Hemelrijk, C. K. (2019). Sexual size dimorphism, prey morphology and catch success in relation to flight mechanics in the peregrine falcon: A simulation study. Journal of Avian Biology, 50(3), [01979].


Mills, R., Hildenbrandt, H., Taylor, G. K., & Hemelrijk, C. K. (2018). Physics-based simulations of aerial attacks by peregrine falcons reveal that stooping at high speed maximizes catch success against agile prey. PLoS Computational Biology, 14(4), [1006044].
Lecheval, V., Jiang, L., Tichit, P., Sire, C., Hemelrijk, C. K., & Theraulaz, G. (2018). Social conformity and propagation of information in collective U-turns of fish schools. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences, 285(1877), [20180251].
Costanzo, A., & Hemelrijk, C. K. (2018). Spontaneous emergence of milling (vortex state) in a Vicsek-like model. Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, 51(13), [134004].
Tan, A. W. Y., Hemelrijk, C. K., Malaivijitnond, S., & Gumert, M. D. (2018). Young macaques (Macaca fascicularis) preferentially bias attention towards closer, older, and better tool users. Animal Cognition, 21(4), 551-563.


Jager, W., Verbrugge, R., Flache, A., de Roo, G., Hoogduin, L., & Hemelrijk, C. (Eds.) (2017). Advances in Social Simulation 2015. (Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing; Vol. 528). Springer International Publishing.
Jager, W., Verbrugge, R., Flache, A., de Roo, G., Hoogduin, L., & Hemelrijk, C. (2017). Introduction. In W. Jager, R. Verbrugge, A. Flache, G. de Roo, L. Hoogduin, & C. Hemelrijk (Eds.), Advances in social simulation 2015 (pp. v-vii). (Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing; Vol. 528). Springer.
Hemelrijk, C. (2017). Simulating complexity of animal social behaviour. In B. Edmonds, & R. Meyer (Eds.), Simulating Social Complexity : A Handbook (pp. 581-616). (Understanding Complex Systems). Springer Verlag.
Hogan, B. G., Hildenbrandt, H., Scott-Samuel, N. E., Cuthill, I. C., & Hemelrijk, C. K. (2017). The confusion effect when attacking simulated three-dimensional starling flocks. Royal Society Open Science, 4(1), [160564].
Hemelrijk, C. K., Kappeler, P. M., & Puga-Gonzalez, I. (2017). The self-organization of social complexity in group-living animals: Lessons from the DomWorld model. In M. Naguib, J. Podos, LW. Simmons, L. Barrett, SD. Healy, & M. Zuk (Eds.), Advances in the Study of Behavior (pp. 361-405). (Advances in the Study of Behavior; Vol. 49). Academic Press.


Stroebe, K., Nijstad, B. A., & Hemelrijk, C. K. (2017). Female dominance in human groups: Effects of sex ratio and conflict level. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 8(2), 209-218.
Kalcher-Sommersguter, E., Preuschoft, S., Franz-Schaider, C., Hemelrijk, C. K., Crailsheim, K., & Massen, J. J. M. (2016). Corrigendum: Early maternal loss affects social integration of chimpanzees throughout their lifetime. Scientific Reports, 6, [24842].


Puga-Gonzalez, I., Cooper, M. A., & Hemelrijk, C. K. (2016). “Targeting or supporting, what drives patterns of aggressive intervention in fights?”. American Journal of Primatology, 78(2), 247-255.
Hemelrijk, C., Puga-Gonzalez, I., & Steinhauser, J. (2015). Cooperation, coalition, alliances. In W. Henke, & I. Tattersall (Eds.), Handbook of Paleoanthropology: Primate Evolution and Human Origins (2 ed., Vol. II, pp. 1693). Springer.
Hemelrijk, C. K., & Hildenbrandt, H. (2015). Diffusion and topological neighbours in flocks of starlings: relating a model to empirical data. PLoS ONE, 10(5), [e0126913].
Kalcher-Sommersguter, E., Preuschoft, S., Franz-Schaider, C., Hemelrijk, C. K., Crailsheim, K., & Massen, J. J. M. (2015). Early maternal loss affects social integration of chimpanzees throughout their lifetime. Scientific Reports, 5, [16439].
Puga-Gonzalez, I., Hoscheid, A., & Hemelrijk, C. K. (2015). Friendship, reciprocation, and interchange in an individual-based model. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 69(3), 383-394.
Demsar, J., Hemelrijk, C. K., Hildenbrandt, H., & Bajec, I. L. (2015). Simulating predator attacks on schools: Evolving composite tactics. Ecological Modelling, 304, 22-33.
van der Post, D. J., Verbrugge, R., & Hemelrijk, C. K. (2015). The evolution of different forms of sociality: Behavioral mechanisms and eco-evolutionary feedback. PLoS ONE, 10(1), [e0117027].
Hemelrijk, C. (Photographer). (2015). Waves of terror in Starling flocks: Specific reactions of Starling flocks to predator attacks. Web publication/site, British Ornithologists' Union.
Hemelrijk, C. K., van Zuidam, L., & Hildenbrandt, H. (2015). What underlies waves of agitation in starling flocks. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 69(5), 755-764.


Hemelrijk, C. K., & Hildenbrandt, H. (2015). Scale-free correlations, influential neighbours and speed control in flocks of birds. Journal of Statistical Physics, 158(3), 563-578.
Hemelrijk, C. K., Reid, D. A. P., Hildenbrandt, H., & Padding, J. T. (2015). The increased efficiency of fish swimming in a school. Fish and Fisheries, 16(3), 511-521.
Puga-Gonzalez, I., Butovskaya, M., Thierry, B., & Hemelrijk, C. K. (2014). Empathy versus parsimony in understanding post-conflict affiliation in monkeys: Model and empirical data. PLoS ONE, 9(3), [e91262].
van der Vaart, E., & Hemelrijk, C. K. (2014). 'Theory of Mind' in animals: Ways to make progress. Synthese, 191(3), 335-354.


van Weerden, J. F., Reid, D. A. P., & Hemelrijk, C. K. (2014). A meta-analysis of steady undulatory swimming. Fish and Fisheries, 15(3), 397-409.
Krueger, K., Flauger, B., Farmer, K., & Hemelrijk, C. (2014). Movement initiation in groups of feral horses. Behavioural Processes, 103, 91-101.
van der Post, D. J., de Weerd, H., Verbrugge, R., & Hemelrijk, C. K. (2013). A novel mechanism for a survival advantage of vigilant individuals in groups. American Naturalist, 182(5), 682-688.
Schroeder, J., Dugdale, H. L., Radersma, R., Hinsch, M., Buehler, D. M., Saul, J., Porter, L., Liker, A., De Cauwer, I., Johnson, P. J., Santure, A. W., Griffin, A. S., Bolund, E., Ross, L., Webb, T. J., Feulner, P. G. D., Winney, I., Szulkin, M., Komdeur, J., ... Horrocks, N. (2013). Fewer invited talks by women in evolutionary biology symposia. Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 26(9), 2063-2069.


Hemelrijk, C. K., & Puga-Gonzalez, I. (2012). An individual-oriented model on the emergence of support in fights, its reciprocation and exchange. PLoS ONE, 7(5), [e37271].
van der Vaart, E., Hemelrijk, C., & Verbrugge, R. (2012). Corvid re-chaching without 'Theory of Mind': A model. PLoS ONE, 7, [e32904].
Reid, D. A. P., Hildenbrandt, H., Hemelrijk, C. K., & Padding, J. T. (2012). Fluid dynamics of moving fish in a two-dimensional multiparticle collision dynamics model. Physical Review E, 85(2), [021901].
Hemelrijk, C. K., & Hildenbrandt, H. (2012). Schools of fish and flocks of birds: Their shape and internal structure by self-organization. Interface Focus, 2(6), 726-737.
Kunz, H., & Hemelrijk, C. K. (2012). Simulations of the social organization of large schools of fish whose perception is obstructed. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 138(3-4), 142-151.


Hemelrijk, C. K., & Bolhuis, J. J. (2011). A minimalist approach to comparative psychology. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 15(5), 185-186.
van der Vaart, E., Verbrugge, R., & Hemelrijk, C. K. (2011). Corvid caching: Insights from a cognitive model. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 37(3), 330-340.
Procaccini, A., Orlandi, A., Cavagna, A., Giardina, I., Zoratto, F., Santucci, D., Chiarotti, F., Hemelrijk, C. K., Alleva, E., Parisi, G., & Carere, C. (2011). Propagating waves in starling, Sturnus vulgaris, flocks under predation. Animal Behavior, 82(4), 759-765.
Hemelrijk, C. (2011). Simple reactions to nearby neighbours and complex social behaviour in primates. In R. Menzel, & J. Fischer (Eds.), Animal Thinking: Contemporary Issues in Comparative Cognition (Vol. 8, pp. 223-238). MIT Press.
Hemelrijk, C., Jensen, K., Silk, J. B., Andrews, K., Bshary, R., & Cheney, D. L. (2011). Social knowledge. In R. Menzel, & J. Fischer (Eds.), Animal Thinking: Contemporary Issues in Comparative Cognition (Vol. 8, pp. 267-292).
Hemelrijk, C. K., & Hildenbrandt, H. (2011). Some causes of the variable shape of flocks of birds. PLoS ONE, 6(8), [22479].


Oosten, J. E., Magnhagen, C., & Hemelrijk, C. K. (2010). Boldness by habituation and social interactions: A model. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 64(5), 793-802.
Hemelrijk, C. K., Hildenbrandt, H., Reinders, J., & Stamhuis, E. J. (2010). Emergence of oblong school shape: Models and empirical data of fish. Ethology, 116(11), 1099-1112.
Dijkstra, P., Lindström, J., Metcalfe, N. B., Hemelrijk, C. K., Brendel, M., Seehausen, O., & Groothuis, T. G. G. (2010). Frequency-dependent social dominance in a color polymorphic cichlid fish. Evolution, 64(10), 2797-2807.
Hildenbrandt, H., Carere, C., & Hemelrijk, C. K. (2010). Self-organized aerial displays of thousands of starlings: A model. Behavioral Ecology, 21(6), 1349-1359.


Becher, M. A., Hildenbrandt, H., Hemelrijk, C. K., & Moritz, R. F. A. (2010). Brood temperature, task division and colony survival in honeybees: A model. Ecological Modelling, 221(5), 769-776.
Puga-Gonzalez, I., Hildenbrandt, H., & Hemelrijk, C. K. (2009). Emergent patterns of social affiliation in primates: A model. PLoS Computational Biology, 5(12), [e1000630].
Reid, D. A. P., Hildenbrandt, H., Padding, J. T., & Hemelrijk, C. K. (2009). Flow around fishlike shapes studied using multiparticle collision dynamics. Physical Review E, 79(4), [046313].
van der Vaart, E. E., Hemelrijk, C., & Verbrugge, L. (2009). Learning where (not) to cache: A cognitive model for corvids. In N. A. Taatgen, & R. van Rijn (Eds.), Proceedings of the 31st Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 2420-2425). Cognitive Science Society.
van der Vaart, E. E., Verbrugge, L., & Hemelrijk, C. (2009). Memory Effects in the Clark's nutcracker: A cognitive model for corvids. In A. Howes, D. Peebles, & R. Cooper (Eds.), Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Cognitive Modeling (pp. 412-417).


Dijkstra, P., Hemelrijk, C., Seehausen, O., & Groothuis, T. G. G. (2009). Color polymorphism and intrasexual competition in assemblages of cichlid fish. Behavioral Ecology, 20(1), 138-144.
Hemelrijk, C. K., Wantia, J., & Isler, K. (2008). Female dominance over males in primates: Self-organisation and sexual dimorphism. PLoS ONE, 3(7), [2678].
Hemelrijk, C. K., & Hildenbrandt, H. (2008). Self‐organized shape and frontal density of fish schools. Ethology, 114(3), 245-254.


Hemelrijk, C. K., & Steinhauser, J. (2007). Cooperation, coalition and alliances. In W. Henke, & I. Tattersal (Eds.), Handbook of Paleoanthropology: Primate Evolution and Human Origins (1 ed., Vol. II, pp. 1321 - 1346). Springer.


Kunz, H., Züblin, T., & Hemelrijk, C. K. (2006). On prey grouping an predator confusion in artificial fish schools. In Proceedings of Tenth International Conference on Artificial Life (pp. 365 - 371). MIT Press.


Martin, RD., Genoud, M., & Hemelrijk, CK. (2005). Problems of allometric scaling analysis: Examples from mammalian reproductive biology. Journal of Experimental Biology, 208(9), 1731-1747.
Cooper, M. A., Bernstein, I. S., & Hemelrijk, C. K. (2005). Reconciliation and relationship quality in Assamese macaques (Macaca assamensis). American Journal of Primatology, 65(3), 269-282.
Hemelrijk, C. K. (2005). Self-organisation and Evolution of Social Systems. Cambridge University Press.
Corporael, L., Wilson, D. S., Hemelrijk, C. K., & Sheldon, K. M. (2005). Small groups from an evolutionary perspective. In M. S. Poole, & A. B. Hollinghead (Eds.), Theories of Small Groups (pp. 369-396). SAGE Publications Inc..
Hemelrijk, C. K., Wantia, J., & Gygax, L. (2005). The construction of dominance order: comparing performance of five methods using an individual-based model. Behaviour, 142, 1037-1058.


Hemelrijk, C. K., & Kunz, H. (2005). Density distribution and size sorting in fish schools: An individual-based model. Behavioral Ecology, 16(1), 178-187.
Hemelrijk, C. K., & Wantia, J. (2005). Individual variation by self-organisation. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 29(1), 125-136.
Hemelrijk, C. K., & Gygax, L. (2004). Dominance style, differences between the sexes and species: An agent-based model. Interaction Studies, 5, 131-146.
Hemelrijk, C. K. (2004). The use of artificial-life models for the study of social organization. In B. Thierry, M. Singh, & W. Kaumanns (Eds.), Macaque Societies: A Model for the Study of Social Organization (pp. 295 - 313). Cambridge University Press.


Kunz, H., & Hemelrijk, C. K. (2003). Artificial fish schools: Collective effects of school size, body size, and body form. Artificial Life, 9(3), 237-253.
Hemelrijk, C., Wantia, J., & Dätwyler, M. (2003). Female co-dominance in a virtual world: Ecological, cognitive, social and sexual causes. Behaviour, 140, 1247-1273.
Waeber, P. O., & Hemelrijk, C. K. (2003). Female dominance and social structure in Alaotran gentle lemurs. Behaviour, 140(10), 1235-1246.
Hemelrijk, C. K., & Thierry, B. (2003). Models and empirical studies of causes and consequences of dominance hierarchies - Introduction. (140 ed.) Martinus Nijhoff/Brill.


Hemelrijk, C. K. (2002). Despotic societies, sexual attraction and the emergence of male 'tolerance': An agent-based model. Behaviour, 139, 729-747.
Hemelrijk, C. K. (2002). Self-organization and natural selection in the evolution of complex despotic societies. Biological Bulletin, 202(3), 283-288.
Hemelrijk, C. K. (2002). Self-organizing properties of primate social behavior: A hypothesis for intersexual rank overlap in chimpanzees and bonobos. In C. Soligo, G. Anzenberger, & R. D. Martin (Eds.), Primatology and Anthropology: Into the Third Millennium (pp. 91 - 94). (Evolutionary Anthropology; No. 11 (Supplement 1)). Wiley.
Hemelrijk, C. K. (2002). Understanding social behaviour with the help of complexity science (Invited article). Ethology, 108(8), 655-671.


Hemelrijk, C. K. (2001). Sexual attraction and inter-sexual dominance among virtual agents. In S. Moss, & P. Davidsson (Eds.), Multi Agent Based Simulation (Vol. 1979, pp. 167 - 180). Springer.


Krause, J., Hoare, D., Krause, S., Hemelrijk, C. K., & Rubenstein, D. I. (2000). Leadership in fish shoals. Fish and Fisheries, 1, 82 - 89.
Meier, C., Hemelrijk, C. K., & Martin, R. D. (2000). Paternity determination, genetic characterization, and social correlates in a captive group of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Primates, 41, 175 - 183.
Hemelrijk, C. K. (2000). Self-reinforcing dominance interactions between virtual males and females: Hypothesis generation for primate studies. Adaptive Behavior, 8, 13-26.
Gössmann, C., Hemelrijk, C. K., & Huber, R. (2000). The formation and maintenance of crayfish hierarchies: Behavioral and self-structuring properties. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 48(6), 418 - 428.
Hemelrijk, C. K. (2000). Towards the integration of social dominance and spatial structure. Animal Behaviour, 59, 1035-1048.


Hemelrijk, C. K. (1999). An individual-orientated model of the emergence of despotic and egalitarian societies. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences, 266, 361 - 369.
Hemelrijk, C. K. (1999). Effects of cohesiveness on inter-sexual dominance relationships and spatial structure among group-living virtual entities. In D. Floreano, J-D. Nicoud, & F. Mondada (Eds.), Advances in Artificial Life (Vol. 1674, pp. 524 - 534). Springer.
Hemelrijk, C. K., Meier, C., & Martin, R. D. (1999). 'Friendship' for fitness in chimpanzees? Animal Behaviour, 58, 1223 - 1229.


Hemelrijk, C. K., & Luteijn, M. (1998). Philopatry, male presence and grooming reciprocation among female primates: a comparative perspective. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 42(3), 207 - 215.


Kummer, H., Anzenberer, G., & Hemelrijk, C. K. (1996). Hiding and perspective taking in long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis). Journal of Comparative Psychology, 110, 97 - 102.


Hemelrijk, C. K. (1994). Support for being groomed in long-tailed macaques, Macaca fascicularis. Animal Behaviour, 48, 479 - 481.


Hemelrijk, C. K., Van Laere, G. J., & Van Hooff, J. A. R. A. M. (1992). Sexual exchange relationships in captive chimpanzees. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 30, 269-275.


Hemelrijk, C. K. (1991). Interchange of 'altruistic' acts as an epiphenomenon. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 153, 137 - 139.
Hemelrijk, C. K., & Ek, A. (1991). Reciprocity and interchange of grooming and 'support' in captive chimpanzees. Animal Behaviour, 41, 923 - 935.
Hemelrijk, C. K., Klomberg, T. J. M., Nooitgedagt, J. H., & Van Hooff, J. A. R. A. M. (1991). Side-directed behavior and recruitment of support in captive chimpanzees. Behaviour, 118, 89 - 102.


Hemelrijk, C. K. (1990). A matrix partial correlation test used in investigations of reciprocity and other social interaction patterns at group level. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 143, 405 - 420.
Hemelrijk, C. K. (1990). Models of, and tests for, reciprocity, unidirectionality and other social interaction patterns at a group level. Animal Behaviour, 39, 1013 - 1029.


Hemelrijk, C. K., & De Kogel, C. H. (1989). What chimpanzee mothers have more sociable infants? Behaviour, 111, 305 - 318.
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